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They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State — for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality — partly by the influence in Austria of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slavs, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system.
Like the English administrative system, the Austrian presented a rich variety, a variety indeed so rich that it clamoured for drastic reform. Bienerth's last act as premier in May was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform.
So early as KOrber had declared a complete change in the principles of administration to be essential if the machinery of State were to continue working.
After seven years of inaction, however, this imperial rescript was pitched in a far lower key. The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was not demanded so much by the defects of the administration but by the progress of the times, not because the administration was bad, but because life was better.
It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines.
A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy. After a year had gone by it drew up "Proposals for the training of State officials".
After another two years it had indeed brought to light carefully prepared material for study, which was of great scientific value; but its proposals.
And so when the World War broke out the commission dispersed without practical results, leaving behind it an imposing array of folio volumes of great scientific value.
It was not till March that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect.
From the administrative and political divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown were in great measure remodelled.
In Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume declared autonomous.
In part of the "Military Frontier" was united with Hungary proper and part with Croatia-Slavonia. Hungary proper, according to ancient usage, was generally divided into four great divisions or circles, and Transylvania up to was regarded as the fifth.
In a general system of counties was introduced. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles, of which Transylvania forms one.
The whole country is divided into the following counties:. Croatia-Slavonia is divided into eight counties: In regard to local government, the country was divided into municipalities or counties, which possessed a certain amount of self-government.
Hungary proper was divided into sixty-three rural, and—including Fiume—twenty-six urban municipalities see section on Administrative Divisions. These urban municipalities were towns which for their local government were independent of the counties in which they were situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body.
Since each municipality had a council of twenty members to exercise control over its administration. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles.
Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary had twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights.
In Croatia-Slavonia there are four urban counties or towns with municipal rights namely: The Empire relied increasingly on a cosmopolitan bureaucracy—in which Czechs played an important role—backed by loyal elements, including a large part of the German, Hungarian, Polish and Croat aristocracy.
The traditional aristocracy and land-based gentry class gradually faced increasingly wealthy men of the cities, who achieved wealth through trade and industrialization.
The urban middle and upper class tended to seek their own power and supported progressive movements in the aftermath of revolutions in Europe.
They were described as "leftist liberals" and their representatives began to be elected to the parliaments of Vienna and Budapest. These leftist liberal parliamentary parties were backed by the big industrialists, bankers, businessmen, and the predominant majority of newspaper publishers.
As in the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire frequently used liberal economic policies and practices. From the s, businessmen succeeded in industrializing parts of the Empire.
Newly prosperous members of the bourgeoisie erected large homes, and began to take prominent roles in urban life that rivaled the aristocracy's.
In the early period, they encouraged the government to seek foreign investment to build up infrastructure, such as railroads, in aid of industrialization, transportation and communications, and development.
The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe , the Austrian prime minister from to Taaffe used a coalition of clergy, conservatives and Slavic parties to weaken the liberals.
In Bohemia , for example, he authorized Czech as an official language of the bureaucracy and school system, thus breaking the German speakers' monopoly on holding office.
Such reforms encouraged other ethnic groups to push for greater autonomy as well. By playing nationalities off one another, the government ensured the monarchy's central role in holding together competing interest groups in an era of rapid change.
During the First World War, rising national sentiments and labour movements contributed to strikes, protests and civil unrest in the Empire.
After the war, republican, national parties contributed to the disintegration and collapse of the monarchy in Austria and Hungary.
Republics were established in Vienna and Budapest. Legislation to help the working class emerged from Catholic conservatives.
They turned to social reform by using Swiss and German models and intervening in private industry. In Germany Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had used such policies to neutralize socialist promises.
The Catholics studied the Swiss Factory Act of that limited working hours for everyone, and gave maternity benefits, and German laws that insured workers against industrial risks inherent in the workplace.
These served as the basis for Austria's Trade Code Amendment. In July , the Hungarian Revolutionary Parliament proclaimed and enacted ethnic and minority rights the next such laws were in Switzerland , but these were overturned after the Russian and Austrian armies crushed the Hungarian Revolution.
It was a liberal piece of legislation, and offered extensive language and cultural rights. It did not recognize non-Hungarians to have rights to form states with any territorial autonomy.
The "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of " created the personal union of the independent states of Hungary and Austria, linked by under a common monarch having also joint-institutions.
The Hungarian majority asserted more of their identity within the Kingdom of Hungary, and it came to conflict with some of her own minorities.
The imperial power of German-speakers who controlled the Austrian half was resented by others. In addition, the emergence of nationalism in the newly independent Romania and Serbia also contributed to ethnic issues in the empire.
All races of the empire have equal rights, and every race has an inviolable right to the preservation and use of its own nationality and language.
The equality of all customary languages " landesübliche Sprachen " in school, office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second country language " Landessprache " , each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language.
The implementation of this principle led to several disputes, as it was not clear which languages could be regarded as "customary".
The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire.
German nationalists, especially in the Sudetenland part of Bohemia , looked to Berlin in the new German Empire.
That is it did not demand an independent state, rather it flourished by holding most of the high military and diplomatic offices in the Empire.
Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" Kultursprache by German intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, but the Germans had difficulty in accepting the Slavic languages as equal to their own.
On one occasion Count A. Auersperg Anastasius Grün entered the Diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovene literature under his arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language could not be substituted for German as the language of higher education.
The following years saw official recognition of several languages, at least in Austria. From , laws awarded Croatian equal status with Italian in Dalmatia.
From , there was a Slovene majority in the Diet of Carniola and in the capital Laibach Ljubljana ; they ruled to replace German with Slovene as their primary official language.
Galicia designated Polish instead of German in as the customary language of government. The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia , where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German.
The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery since the 13th century.
The constitution of made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno Brünn.
The old Charles University in Prague , hitherto dominated by German speakers, was divided into German and Czech-speaking faculties in At the same time, Hungarian dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians in Transylvania and in the eastern Banat , Slovaks in today's Slovakia , and Croats and Serbs in the crown lands of Croatia and of Dalmatia today's Croatia , in Bosnia and Herzegovina , and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina today's northern Serbia.
The Romanians and the Serbs began to agitate for union with their fellow nationalists and language speakers in the newly founded states of Romania — and Serbia.
Hungary's leaders were generally less willing than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, but they granted a large measure of autonomy to Croatia in To some extent, they modelled their relation to that kingdom on their own compromise with Austria of the previous year.
In spite of nominal autonomy, the Croatian government was an economic and administrative part of Hungary, which the Croatians resented. The count finally signed the trialist proclamation after heavy pressure from the king on 23 October Language was one of the most contentious issues in Austro-Hungarian politics.
All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in deciding on the languages of government and of instruction. The minorities sought the widest opportunities for education in their own languages, as well as in the "dominant" languages—Hungarian and German.
By the "Ordinance of 5 April ", the Austrian Prime Minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia ; this led to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the empire.
The Crown dismissed Badeni. From June , all public and private schools in Hungary were obliged to ensure that after the fourth grade, the pupils could express themselves fluently in Hungarian.
This led to the closing of several minority schools, devoted mostly to the Slovak and Rusyn languages. The two kingdoms sometimes divided their spheres of influence.
According to Misha Glenny in his book, The Balkans, — , the Austrians responded to Hungarian support of Czechs by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb.
In recognition that he reigned in a multi-ethnic country, Emperor Franz Joseph spoke and used German, Hungarian and Czech fluently, and Croatian, Serbian, Polish and Italian to some degree.
Around , Jews in the empire numbered about two million;  their position was ambiguous. Antisemitic parties and movements existed, but the governments of Vienna and Budapest did not initiate pogroms or implement official antisemitic policies.
The antisemitic parties remained on the periphery of the political sphere due to their low popularity among voters in the parliamentary elections.
In that period, the majority of Jews in Austria-Hungary lived in small towns shtetls in Galicia and rural areas in Hungary and Bohemia, although there were large communities in Vienna, Budapest, Prague and other large cities.
Of the pre-World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command.
The number of Jews were estimated from religious census. It did not include the Jewish origin people who were converted to Christianity, or the number of atheists.
The minister of foreign affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Dual Monarchy, and negotiated treaties. The Dual Monarchy was created in the wake of a losing war in with Prussia and Italy.
To rebuild Habsburg prestige and gain revenge against Prussia, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust became foreign secretary. He hated Prussia's diplomat, Otto von Bismarck , who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him.
No terms could be reached. The decisive victory of Prusso-German armies in the war of with France and the founding of the German Empire ended all hope of revenge and Beust retired.
After being forced out of Germany and Italy, the Dual Monarchy turned to the Balkans, which were in tumult as nationalistic efforts were trying to end the rule of the Ottomans.
Both Russia and Austria-Hungary saw an opportunity to expand in this region. Russia in particular took on the role of protector of the Slavs and the orthodox Christians.
Austria envisioned a multi-ethnic, religiously diverse empire under Vienna's control. He wanted Germany to ally with Austria, not Russia. The Congress of Berlin in let Austria occupy but not annex the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina , a predominantly Slavic area.
In , Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I.
The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual Monarchy. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its year existences.
Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The first Austrian stock exchange the Wiener Börse was opened in in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary the Budapest Stock Exchange was opened in Budapest in The central bank Bank of issue was founded as Austrian National Bank in The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1.
Like the German Empire, that of Austria-Hungary frequently employed liberal economic policies and practices. The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub.
Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. Economic growth centered on Vienna and Budapest, the Austrian lands areas of modern Austria , the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands.
In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands. As a result, wide disparities of development existed within the empire.
In general, the western areas became more developed than the eastern. The Kingdom of Hungary became the world's second largest flour exporter after the United States.
Hungary became the most important foreign food supplier of the large cities and industrial centres of the United Kingdom.
However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western.
The strong agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of Hungary with the centre of Budapest became predominant within the empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe.
Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries. This division of labour between the east and west, besides the existing economic and monetary union , led to an even more rapid economic growth throughout Austria-Hungary by the early 20th century.
However, since the turn of the twentieth century, the Austrian half of the Monarchy could preserve its dominance within the empire in the sectors of the first industrial revolution , but Hungary had a better position in the industries of the second industrial revolution , in these modern sectors of the second industrial revolution the Austrian competition could not become dominant.
The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry , locomotive industry and automotive industry , while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant.
Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world.
The two most important trading partners were traditionally Germany Hungarian car production started in Automotive factories in the Kingdom of Hungary manufactured motorcycles, cars, taxicabs, trucks and buses.
The first airplane in Austria was Edvard Rusjan 's design, the Eda I, which had its maiden flight in the vicinity of Gorizia on 25 November Between and , the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing.
The locomotive steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures factories were installed in Vienna Locomotive Factory of the State Railway Company , founded in , in Wiener Neustadt New Vienna Locomotive Factory , founded in , and in Floridsdorf Floridsdorf Locomotive Factory , founded in Galicia has been described as the poorest province of Austro-Hungary.
The near constant famines in Galicia , resulting in 50, deaths a year, have been described as endemic. By , the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary reached 43, kilometres 26, miles.
Rail transport expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its predecessor state , the Habsburg Empire , had built a substantial core of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by Austria's first steam railway from Vienna to Moravia with its terminus in Galicia Bochnie was opened in At that point, the government realized the military possibilities of rail and began to invest heavily in construction.
The government then began to sell off large portions of track to private investors to recoup some of its investments and because of the financial strains of the Revolution and of the Crimean War.
From to , private interests conducted almost all rail construction. During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections.
This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area.
Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers.
After , the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the s.
Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time.
The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy.
By , the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached 22, kilometres 14, miles , the Hungarian network linked more than 1, settlements.
This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world ahead of countries as Germany or France. Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century.
Between the s and s many were built. Vienna , Budapest , Brno Steam trams appeared in the late s. The electrification of tramways started from the late s.
The first electrified tramway in Austria-Hungary was built in Budapest in The Budapest metro Line 1 originally the "Franz Joseph Underground Electric Railway Company" is the second oldest underground railway in the world  the first being the London Underground's Metropolitan Line and the third being Glasgow , and the first on the European mainland.
It was built from to and opened on 2 May In the engineer C. It was born from the desire of Austria-Hungary to have a direct link to the Adriatic Sea  but was never constructed.
The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping. In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone.
Near the actual " Iron Gates " strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious.
The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1, kilometres miles. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain , which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe.
Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area.
The first Hungarian steamship was built by Antal Bernhard in , called S. It was also the first steamship in Habsburg ruled states. The most significant seaport was Trieste today part of Italy , where the Austrian merchant marine was based.
In addition, the two major shipping companies Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana and several shipyards were located there.
This port grew as Venice declined. From to , Venice was included within the monarchy and was prevented from competing with Austrian-ruled ports.
The merchant marine did not develop until Venice's shipping interest declined. The navy became significant during the time of the k.
The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k. The largest Hungarian shipbuilding company was the Ganz-Danubius.
Another significant seaport was Pola Pula , today part of Croatia — especially for the navy. In , the Austrian merchant marine consisted of 10, ships, with 7, fishing vessels.
The coast and sea trade had a total of 1, sailboats with crews of 6, men and a load capacity of , tons; and steamers with a load capacity of 96, tons and a crew of 3, men.
The first Danubian steamer company, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt-Gesellschaft DDSG , was the largest inland shipping company in the world until the collapse of the k.
The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time. Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers.
In , the first telegraph connection Vienna — Brno — Prague started operation. In , during the Hungarian Revolution, another telegraph centre was built in Buda to connect the most important governmental centres.
The first telegraph connection between Vienna and Pest—Buda later Budapest was constructed in ,  and Vienna—Zagreb capital of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia in In , 2, telegraph post offices operated in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The first telephone exchange was opened in Zagreb 8 January ,    the second was in Budapest 1 May ,  and the third was opened in Vienna 3 June Public telephone stations appeared in the s, and they quickly became widespread in post offices and railway stations.
Austria-Hungary had million telephone calls in ; only two Western European countries had more phone calls: The Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France with million telephone calls and Italy with million phone calls.
In , there were million telephone calls in the Austrian half of the monarchy, among them 8. All telephone exchanges of the cities, towns and larger villages in Kingdom of Hungary were linked until Two decades before the introduction of radio broadcasting, people could listen to political, economic and sport news, cabaret, music and opera in Budapest daily.
It operated over a special type of telephone exchange system. The census of recorded Umgangssprache , everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache , even when having a different Muttersprache.
In the Austrian Empire, In the Kingdom of Hungary, Note that some languages are considered dialects of more widely spoken languages.
Yiddish was counted as "German" in both Austria and Hungary. Solely in the Empire of Austria: Solely in the Kingdom of Hungary: The organization of the Austrian elementary schools was based on the principle of compulsory school attendance, free education, and the imparting of public instruction in the child's own language.
Side by side with these existed private schools. The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in was , to 4.
Hence the accusation of denationalizing children through the Schulvereine must be accepted with caution.
The expenses of education were distributed as follows: Since the State supervised the schools without maintaining them, it was able to increase its demands without being hampered by financial considerations.
It is remarkable that the difference between the State educational estimates in Austria and in Hungary was one of 9. It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.
The number of elementary schools increased from 19, in two to 24, in ; the number of scholars from 3,, in to 4,, in Emperor Charles IV in Prague in The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.
Thus Germans, Czechs and Poles were provided for. But now the smaller nations also made their voices heard: The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there.
Since the Poles were at first unyielding, Ruthenian demonstrations and strikes of students arose, and the Ruthenians were no longer content with the reversion of a few separate professorial chairs, and with parallel courses of lectures.
By a pact concluded on 28 January the Poles promised a Ruthenian university; but owing to the war the question lapsed.
The Italians could hardly claim a university of their own on grounds of population in 19to they numbered , , but they claimed it all the more on grounds of their ancient culture.
All parties were agreed that an Italian faculty of laws should be created; the difficulty lay in the choice of the place. The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Slavs of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment.
Bienerth in brought about a compromise; namely, that it should be founded at once, the situation to be provisionally in Vienna, and to be transferred within four years to Italian national territory.
The German National Union Nationalverband agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach.
But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized.
One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character.
By a law passed in attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. But the number of state-aided elementary schools is continually increasing, as the spread of the Magyar language to the other races through the medium of the elementary schools is one of the principal concerns of the Hungarian government, and is vigorously pursued.
Since infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, have been maintained either by the communes or by the state.
The public instruction of Hungary contains three other groups of educational institutions: The middle schools comprise classical schools gymnasia which are preparatory for the universities and other " high schools," and modern schools Realschulen preparatory for the technical schools.
Their course of study is generally eight years, and they are maintained mostly by the state. The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries.
The number of middle schools in was with teachers, attended by 71, pupils; in their number was , attended by 40, pupils. None of these medieval universities survived the Ottoman wars.
Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics BME is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure.
The high schools include the universities, of which Hungary possesses Five, all maintained by the state: Newer universities were established in Debrecen in , and Pozsony university was reestablished after a half millennium in They have four faculties: There are besides ten high schools of law, called academies, which in were attended by pupils.
The Polytechnicum in Budapest, founded in , which contains four faculties and was attended in by pupils, is also considered a high school.
There were in Hungary in forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish.
There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools — for design, painting, sculpture, music.
The Army was under the command of Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen , an old-fashioned bureaucrat who opposed modernization. Its military force was composed of the common army ; the special armies, namely the Austrian Landwehr , and the Hungarian Honved , which were separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-en masse.
As stated above, the common army stood under the administration of the joint minister of war, while the special armies were under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence.
The yearly contingent of recruits for the army was fixed by the military bills voted on by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and was generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns.
It amounted in to , men, of which Austria furnished 59, men, and Hungary 43, Besides 10, men were annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12, to the Hungarian Honved.
The term of service was two years three years in the cavalry with the colours, seven or eight in the reserve and two in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service was spent in various special reserves.
The common minister of war was the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honved, which were committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states.
But the supreme command of the army was nominally vested in the monarch, who had the power to take all measures regarding the whole army. In practice the emperor's nephew Archduke Albrecht was his chief military advisor and made the policy decisions.
The Austro-Hungarian navy was mainly a coast defence force, and also included a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It was administered by the naval department of the ministry of war.
Russian Pan-Slavic organizations sent aid to the Balkan rebels and so pressured the tsar's government to declare war on the Ottoman Empire in in the name of protecting Orthodox Christians.
This treaty sparked an international uproar that almost resulted in a general European war. Austria-Hungary and Britain feared that a large Bulgaria would become a Russian satellite that would enable the tsar to dominate the Balkans.
British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli moved warships into position against Russia to halt the advance of Russian influence in the eastern Mediterranean so close to Britain's route through the Suez Canal.
The Congress of Berlin rolled back the Russian victory by partitioning the large Bulgarian state that Russia had carved out of Ottoman territory and denying any part of Bulgaria full independence from the Ottomans.
Austria occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as a way of gaining clout in the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became fully independent.
Nonetheless the Balkans remained a site of political unrest with teeming ambition for independence and great power rivalries. As a result, Greater Bulgaria was broken up and Serbian independence was guaranteed.
In another measure to keep the Russians out of the Balkans Austria-Hungary formed an alliance, the Mediterranean Entente, with Britain and Italy in and concluded mutual defence pacts with Germany in and Romania in against a possible Russian attack.
Anxious about Balkan instability and Russian aggression, and to counter French interests in Europe, Austria-Hungary forged a defensive alliance with Germany in October and in May In October Italy joined this partnership in the Triple Alliance largely because of Italy's imperial rivalries with France.
The annexation in led some in Vienna to contemplate combining Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia to form a third Slavic component of the monarchy.
The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian , and his only son, Rudolf made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand , heir to the throne.
The Archduke was rumoured to have been an advocate for this trialism as a means to limit the power of the Hungarian aristocracy.
A proclamation issued on the occasion of its annexation to the Habsburg Monarchy in promised these lands constitutional institutions, which should secure to their inhabitants full civil rights and a share in the management of their own affairs by means of a local representative assembly.
In performance of this promise a constitution was promulgated in This included a Territorial Statute Landesstatut with the setting up of a Territorial Diet, regulations for the election and procedure of the Diet, a law of associations, a law of public meetings, and a law dealing with the district councils.
According to this statute Bosnia-Herzegovina formed a single administrative territory under the responsible direction and supervision of the Ministry of Finance of the Dual Monarchy in Vienna.
The administration of the country, together with the carrying out of the laws, devolved upon the Territorial Government in Sarajevo, which was subordinate and responsible to the Common Ministry of Finance.
The existing judicial and administrative authorities of the Territory retained their previous organization and functions.
That statute introduced the modern rights and laws in Bosnia — Herzegovina, and it guaranteed generally the civil rights of the inhabitants of the Territory, namely citizenship, personal liberty, protection by the competent judicial authorities, liberty of creed and conscience, preservation of the national individuality and language, freedom of speech, freedom of learning and education, inviolability of the domicile, secrecy of posts and telegraphs, inviolability of property, the right of petition, and finally the right of holding meetings.
The Diet Sabor of Bosnia-Herzegovina set up consisted of a single Chamber, elected on the principle of the representation of interests.
It numbered 92 members. Of these 20 consisted of representatives of all the religious confessions, the president of the Supreme Court, the president of the Chamber of Advocates, the president of the Chamber of Commerce, and the mayor of Sarajevo.
In addition to these were 72 deputies, elected by three curiae or electoral groups. The first curia included the large landowners, the highest taxpayers, and people who had reached a certain standard of education without regard to the amount they paid in taxes.
To the second curia belonged inhabitants of the towns not qualified to vote in the first; to the third, country dwellers disqualified in the same way.
With this curial system was combined the grouping of the mandates and of the electors according to the three dominant creeds Catholic, Serbian Orthodox, Muslim.
To the adherents of other creeds the right was conceded of voting with one or other of the religious electoral bodies within the curia to which they belonged.
It injured some people nearby, and Franz Ferdinand's convoy could carry on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them quickly.
About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where Gavrilo Princip by coincidence stood.
With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. The reaction among the Austrian people was mild, almost indifferent.
Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened.
The assassination excessively intensified the existing traditional religion-based ethnic hostilities in Bosnia.
However, in Sarajevo itself, Austrian authorities encouraged   violence against the Serb residents, which resulted in the Anti-Serb riots of Sarajevo , in which Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims killed two and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings.
While the empire's military spending had not even doubled since the Congress of Berlin , Germany's spending had risen fivefold, and the British, Russian, and French expenditures threefold.
The empire had lost ethnic Italian areas to Piedmont because of nationalist movements that had swept through Italy, and many Austro-Hungarians perceived as imminent the threat of losing to Serbia the southern territories inhabited by Slavs.
Serbia had recently gained considerable territory in the Second Balkan War of , causing much distress in government circles in Vienna and Budapest.
Former ambassador and foreign minister Count Alois Aehrenthal had assumed that any future war would be in the Balkan region. He used the hitherto unknown word "Weltkrieg" meaning World War.
They proposed to solve the dispute with arms, attacking Serbia. Tisza proposed to give the government of Serbia time to take a stand as to whether it was involved in the organisation of the murder and proposed a peaceful resolution, arguing that the international situation would settle soon.
Returning to Budapest, he wrote to Emperor Franz Joseph saying he would not take any responsibility for the armed conflict because there was no proof that Serbia had plotted the assassination.
Tisza opposed a war with Serbia, stating correctly, as it turned out that any war with the Serbs was bound to trigger a war with Russia and hence a general European war.
He thought that even a successful Austro-Hungarian war would be disastrous for the integrity of Kingdom of Hungary, where Hungary would be the next victim of Austrian politics.
After a successful war against Serbia, Tisza foresaw a possible Austrian military attack against the Kingdom of Hungary, where the Austrians want to break up the territory of Hungary.
Some members of the government, such as Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, had wanted to confront the resurgent Serbian nation for some years in a preventive war, but the Emperor, 84 years old and an enemy of all adventures, disapproved.
The Kaiser read both papers quite carefully in my presence. First, His Majesty assured me that he had expected us to take firm action against Serbia, but he had to concede that, as a result of the conflicts facing [Franz Joseph], he needed to take into account a serious complication in Europe, which is why he did not wish to give any definite answer prior to consultations with the chancellor As mentioned, he first had to consult with the Chancellor, but he did not have the slightest doubt that Herr von Bethmann Hollweg would fully agree with him, particularly with regard to action on our part against Serbia.
According to the Kaiser, as things stood now, Russia was not at all ready for war. It would certainly have to think hard before making a call to arms.
But now the leaders of Austria-Hungary, especially General Count Leopold von Berchtold, backed by its ally Germany, decided to confront Serbia militarily before it could incite a revolt; using the assassination as an excuse, they presented a list of ten demands called the July Ultimatum ,  expecting Serbia would never accept.
When Serbia accepted nine of the ten demands but only partially accepted the remaining one, Austria-Hungary declared war.
Franz Joseph I finally followed the urgent counsel of his top advisers. Over the course of July and August , these events caused the start of World War I , as Russia mobilized in support of Serbia, setting off a series of counter-mobilizations.
Italy initially remained neutral, although it had an alliance with Austria-Hungary. In , it switched to the side of the Entente powers , hoping to gain territory from its former ally.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a relatively passive diplomatic role in the war, as it was increasingly dominated and controlled by Germany. Instead as the war went on the ethnic unity declined; the Allies encouraged breakaway demands from minorities and the Empire faced disintegration.
Starting in late the new Emperor Karl removed the pro-German officials and opened peace overtures to the Allies, whereby the entire war could be ended by compromise, or perhaps Austria would make a separate peace from Germany.
Austria was only willing to turn over the Trentino region but nothing more. As the Imperial economy collapsed into severe hardship and even starvation, its multi-ethnic army lost its morale and was increasingly hard pressed to hold its line.
In the capital cities of Vienna and Budapest, the leftist and liberal movements and opposition parties strengthened and supported the separatism of ethnic minorities.
As it became apparent that the Allies would win the war, nationalist movements, which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for their majority areas, started demanding full independence.
The Emperor had lost much of his power to rule, as his realm disintegrated. The heavily rural Empire did have a small industrial base, but its major contribution was manpower and food.
On the home front, food grew scarcer and scarcer, as did heating fuel. The hog population fell 90 percent, as the dwindling supplies of ham and bacon percent of the Army.
Hungary, with its heavy agricultural base, was somewhat better fed. The Army conquered productive agricultural areas in Romania and elsewhere, but refused to allow food shipments to civilians back home.
Morale fell every year, and the diverse nationalities gave up on the Empire and looked for ways to establish their own nation states. Inflation soared, from an index of in to in , wiping out the cash savings of the middle-class.
In terms of war damage to the economy, the war used up about 20 percent of the GDP. The dead soldiers amounted to about four percent of the labor force, and the wounded ones to another six percent.
Compared all the major countries in the war, Austria's death and casualty rate was toward the high-end. By summer , "Green Cadres" of army deserters formed armed bands in the hills of Croatia-Slavonia and civil authority disintegrated.
By late October violence and massive looting erupted and there were efforts to form peasant republics.
However The Croatian political leadership was focused on creating a new state Yugoslavia and worked with the advancing Serbian army to impose control and end the uprisings.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire conscripted 7. Franz Joseph I, who was much too old to command the army, appointed Archduke Friedrich von Österreich-Teschen as Supreme Army Commander Armeeoberkommandant , but asked him to give Von Hötzendorf freedom to take any decisions.
Von Hötzendorf remained in effective command of the military forces until Emperor Karl I took the supreme command himself in late and dismissed Conrad von Hötzendorf in Meanwhile, economic conditions on the homefront deteriorated rapidly.
The Empire depended on agriculture, and agriculture depended on the heavy labor of millions of men who are now in the Army.
Food production fell, the transportation system became overcrowded, and industrial production could not successfully handle the overwhelming need for munitions.
Germany provided a great deal of help, but it was not enough. Furthermore, the political instability of the multiple ethnic groups of Empire now ripped apart any hope for national consensus in support of the war.
Increasingly there was a demand for breaking up the Empire and setting up autonomous national states based on historic language-based cultures.
The new Emperor sought peace terms from the Allies, but his initiatives were vetoed by Italy. At the start of the war, the army was divided in two: The invasion of Serbia in was a disaster: However, in the autumn of , the Serbian Army was defeated by the Central Powers, which led to the occupation of Serbia.
Near the end of , in a massive rescue operation involving more than 1, trips made by Italian, French and British steamers, , Serb soldiers were transported to Corfu , where they waited for the chance of the victory of Allied Powers to reclaim their country.
Corfu hosted the Serbian government in exile after the collapse of Serbia, and served as a supply base to the Greek front. In April a large number of Serbian troops were transported in British and French naval vessels from Corfu to mainland Greece.
The contingent numbering over , relieved a much smaller army at the Macedonian Front and fought alongside British and French troops.
On the Eastern front , the war started out equally poorly. The Russian Third Army perished. From June , the Russians focused their attacks on the Austro-Hungarian army in the Brusilov Offensive , recognizing the numerical inferiority of the Austro-Hungarian army.
By the end of September , Austria-Hungary mobilized and concentrated new divisions, and the successful Russian advance was halted and slowly repelled; but the Austrian armies took heavy losses about 1 million men and never recovered.
The Battle of Zborov was the first significant action of the Czechoslovak Legions , who fought for the independence of Czechoslovakia against the Austro-Hungarian army.
However the huge losses in men and material inflicted on the Russians during the offensive contributed greatly to the revolutions of , and it caused an economic crash in the Russian Empire.
In May , Italy attacked Austria-Hungary. Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna marched his army towards the Isonzo river, hoping to seize Ljubljana , and to eventually threaten Vienna.
However, the Royal Italian Army were halted on the river, where four battles took place over five months 23 June — 2 December The fight was extremely bloody and exhausting for both the contenders.
The Italians managed to resist and in a counteroffensive seized Gorizia on 9 August. Nonetheless, they had to stop on the Carso , a few kilometres away from the border.
At this point, several months of indecisive trench warfare ensued analogous to the Western front. As the Russian Empire collapsed as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution and Russians ended their involvement in the war , Germans and Austrians were able to move on the Western and Southern fronts much manpower from the erstwhile Eastern fighting.
Italy, although suffering massive casualties, recovered from the blow, and a coalition government under Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was formed.
Italy also enjoyed support by the Entente powers: The multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire started to disintegrate, leaving its army alone on the battlefields.
The final battle was at Vittorio Veneto ; after 4 days of stiff resistance, Italian troops crossed the Piave River, and after losing 90, men the defeated Austrian troops retreated in disarray pursued by the Italians.
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